What is a Urine Glucose Test?
A urine glucose test is used to evaluate the amount of glucose present in your urine. The carbohydrates that we consume are broken down and converted by the body into glucose or sugar, which then enter into the blood. The pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that transmits the glucose from the blood to the cells in order to provide us the energy needed for everyday functioning. The kidney helps in getting rid of the excess amount of glucose present in the blood through the urine.
This test is also known as the urine sugar test since it measures glycosuria, which refers to the presence of glucose in the urine.
Why Do Doctors Request a Urine Glucose Test?
- Urinalysis means the examination of the appearance and constituents of the urine. Your doctor might ask you to go for a urine glucose test or urine sugar test to check whether the amount of glucose present in your urine is moderate or not.
- It can be used to diagnose diabetes too. Through the urine glucose test results, pregnant women can determine whether they have gestational diabetes.
- Certain kidney problems like urinary tract infection can also be examined via the test. Renal glycosuria, the condition which leads the kidney to release glucose in the urine, despite moderate blood sugar levels, can also be checked by urinalysis.
- Ketones are chemicals produced when there is a lack of insulin in the body, and thus, the glucose is unable to move from the blood to the cells. The body, in order to create energy, begins to break down fat, which leads to the formation of ketones. These can be present in the urine, and the test can be used to check for the same.
Signs to Take a Urine Glucose Test:
If you experience any symptoms pertaining to diabetes, you may be advised to take the urine glucose test or urine sugar test. These include the following:
- Weight loss
- Frequent urination
- Excess thirst
- Distorted vision
People who are obese, have high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels are also at risk to develop diabetes and thus, may be asked to get tested for the same.
If your health experts suspect conditions such as ketones, renal glycosuria, or kidney disorders by observing the symptoms, like vomiting and nausea, you can also be advised to take the test.
Blood sugar levels are often checked during pregnancy to examine gestational diabetes, which is usually asymptomatic.
The procedure of Urine Glucose Test:
You will be given a small cup at the laboratory and asked to collect your urine sample in it. Begin by washing your hands and cleaning the area around your genitals using a disposable cloth.
Start urinating in the toilet and then in-between switch to the cup to collect the sample. You can then finish peeing in the toilet. Close the cup and provide it to the healthcare worker at the laboratory. The doctor will then dip a stick in the urine sample which will change color. This will be compared with a chart to measure the amount of glucose present in your urine.
Risks of Urine Glucose Test:
There are no risks associated with this test.
Types of Urine Glucose Test:
There is only one type of urine glucose test available which involves taking the urine sample for administering the test results. However, the test can be performed both at home and in a laboratory using the same methods mentioned above.
If taking the test at home, carefully read the instructions given on the kit and compare the color changes of the strips with the provided chart after dripping them in the urine.
Normal Urine Glucose Test Results:
The measurements may vary in different laboratories. Usually, the normal glucose range in urine is 0 to 0.8 mmol/l (0 to 15 mg/dL). Thus, if your test results fall within this category, it signifies that there is no glucose present in your urine and the report is normal.
Similarly, the normal ketones range in the urine is less than 0.6 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). The test reports that fall within this range signify an absence of ketones in the urine.
Understanding Abnormal Urine Glucose Test Results:
Changing the strip color can show the presence of glucose in the urine. If the test results fall within a range that is higher than the normal one, chances are that you might have diabetes, a kidney disorder, or renal glycosuria.
Similarly, pregnant women whose test results are not normal may have gestational diabetes.
The presence of protein in the urine can also signify kidney problems.
People diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes have higher chances of having ketones in their urine. Following is the list of ketones level and what they signify:
|0.6 to 1.5 mmol/L (10 to 30 mg/dL)||The initial stages of ketone formation.|
|1.6 to 3.0 mmol/L (30 to 50 mg/dL)||The diabetes levels are not under control and require attention.|
|3.0 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) and greater levels||The person has diabetic ketoacidosis and requires proper treatment.|
Reasons for Abnormal Urine Glucose Test Results:
- Diabetes is the main cause of abnormal urine sugar test results. Hyperglycemia can lead to the presence of an excessive amount of blood sugar in the urine.
- Insulin deficiency can hamper the glucose levels in the body. Exercising less is also another reason for the same.
- Pregnancy results in the release of glucose in the urine and therefore, cause the test reports to be not normal.
- Certain medicines can also trigger an increase in glucose levels in the blood.
A beneficiary guide for the urine glucose test has been provided, listing its procedures, result, interpretations, and uses.